Essential oils have been studied extensively in human and animal models. Here are some study numbers that you can read on

Essential oils have been studied extensively in human and animal models. In fact, there are currently over 24,400 essential oil-related articles published on the National Library of Medicine’s website. Here are some PubMed study numbers if you want to take a closer look.


  • Aroma of peppermint oil shown to enhance memory and increase alertness. (See: PubMed 18041606)
  • Some edible herbs (including peppermint) shown to enhance relevant aspects of cognitive function and alertness. (See: PubMed 30671903)
  • A clicnical trial with nasal application of peppermint oil to reduce intensity and frequency of headaches. (See: PubMed 31404204)
  • An extensive overview of a number of oils (including peppermint) for their antimicrobial properties. (See: PubMed 31195752)
  • A study looking at the use of menthol to assist with strenuous performance in hot environments. (See: PubMed 29629974 and 27858306)
  • Drawing on 31 studies, this paper discusses the role and mechanism of action of menthol in topical analgesic products. (See: PubMed 29524352)
  • A look at the insecticidal properties of some essential oils, including peppermint. (See: PubMed 31837609)

For more, head to and search for “peppermint”, “mentha piperita” or “menthol”. 

Safety note: oils that are rich in menthol should not be used on the chest and head area in children under 3.


  • Frankincense facilitates the acquisition and retention of motor memory in a specific group study. (See: PubMed 31317694)
  • This study suggests frankincense can be beneficial in improvement of memory. (See: PubMed 29306113)
  • Frankincense may enhance the cognitive outcome of patients with brain injury (24088189) and in animal models (18414499).
  • Therapeutic effect of frankincense on Alzheimer’s disease in animal models. (See: PubMed 27516988)
  • Frankincense improves spatial memory retrieval (29966740) and cognitive function (28392957) in animal models.
  • Fascinating study detailing the analgesic, tranquilising, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects of frankincense. (See: PubMedCentral 27117114)
  • A key constituent of frankincense is alpha-pinene, which has been found to provide protection against UVA-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human skin cells. (See: PubMed 30292828)
  • Limonene is another key constituent of frankincense essential oil. There has been a lot of research around limonene in the past few decades, so definitely search that term on the PubMed database to find a study that fascinates you. Here are a few to get you started. (See: PubMed 20492298, 11142088, 7948106)



  • An extensive overview of the pharmacological and therapeutic potential of beta-caryophyllene. (See: PubMedCentral 3612440)
  • A look at the ways in which beta-caryophyllene enhances wound healing. (See: PubMed 31841509)
  • A study looking at the way copaiba essential oil reduces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in animal models. (See: PubMed 30132972)
  • A review analysing the antimicrobial action of copaiba oil against oral pathogens. (See: PubMed 29193389)

For more, head to and search for “copaiba”, “copaifera officinalis”, “copaifera reticulata” or “beta-caryophyllene”.


Lemon (and other citrus oils)

  • Anti-bacterial activities of several plant essential oils (including lemon) against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in apple juices. (See: PubMed 15366861)
  • A study suggesting that lemon oil reliably enhances positive mood. (See: PubMed 18178322)
  • Studies looking at the anti-tumor activity of limonene. (See: PubMed 29670359 and 7948106)
  • Antidepressant-like effect of limonene in animal models. (See: PubMed 30905156)
  • This study suggests that bergamot essential oil can be used as an effective adjunct treatment to improve individuals’ mental health and well-being. (See: PubMed 28337799)
  • A review of the anxiolytic effect of essential oils and their constituents. (See: PubMed 31148444)
  • Bergamot essential oil attenuates anxiety-like behaviour in animal models. (See: PubMed 28398260 and 21105176)

For more, head to and search for “lemon”, “citrus limon”, or “limonene”.



  • Fascinating insights into lavender’s effect on the central nervous system in humans, including its capacity to help improve quality of sleep, reduce discomfort and ease tension. (See: PubMedCentral 3612440)
  • An extensive overview of a number of oils (including lavender) for their antimicrobial properties. (See: PubMed 31195752)
  • A study looking at the effect of aromatherapy massage with lavender and chamomile oil on anxiety and sleep quality of patients with burns. (See: PubMed 31859096)
  • Two of the key constituents of lavender essential oil are linalyl acetate and linalool, both of which have been investigated in studies on sedation and anxiety in animal models. (See: PubMed 1817516 and 18824339)
  • Lavender has been found to reduce anxiety in pre-operative (PubMed 31505191) and dental patients (PubMed 19968674).

For more, head to and search for “lavender” or “lavandula angustifolia”.

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